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MC 202/BC 205 (JAN) 2:0
Molecular Genetics

The logic and techniques of genetic analysis. Epistasis, suppressors, genetic interaction networks and reverse genetics and genomics. Illustration of the application of genetic analysis to specific pathways in model organisms. Some examples are genetics of phage morphogenesis, bacterial chemotaxis, regulation of cell cycle, genome rearrangements, genetic recombination, transposition, signaling and developmental mechanisms in flies, worms and plants.

Usha Vijayraghavan, K. Muniyappa, and Utpal Nath

Current Opinion in Genetics and Development/ Cell Biology; Nature reviews Genetics;
Nature reviews Molecular Biology; Trends in Genetics/ Biochemistry; Annual Reviews of Genetics and other related Series.

MC 203/DB 203 (AUG) 3:0
Essentials in Microbiology

Fascinating world of microbes; Principles of microscopy; Microbial taxonomy, microbial diversity, evolution and genomics; Mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer; Microbes as model systems of development; Microbes as bioreactors and sensors; Bioremediation; Bacterial cell structure and function; Bacterial physiology and nutrition; Bacteriophages, plasmids and transposons; Understanding and combating bacterial pathogenesis; Antibiotics- mechanisms of drug resistance and mode of action; Quorum sensing and biofilms; Diagnostics and Vaccine Development.

K. N. Balaji, Dipshika Chakravortty, and V. Nagaraja

Stanier, R.V. Adelberg E.A and Ingraham J.L., GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY, Macmillan press, IV edition; Westriech, G.A. and Lechmann M.D., MICROBIOLOGY, Macmillan Press, Fifth Edition; MICROBIOLOGY: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS, Maxwell Macmillan, Second Edition; IMMUNOLOGY by Richard A. Goldsby, Thomas J. Kindt, Barbara A. Osborne, Janis Kuby, W. H. Freeman & Company, New York; IMMUNOBIOLOGY by Janeway, Travers, Walport, Shlomchik, Garland Science Publishing, New York.

MC 204/DB 214 (AUG) 2:0

Virus cultivation, attachment and entry, pathogenesis of virus infections, virus-host cell interactions, immune response to viruses, virus persistence. Replication and translation of positive strand RNA viruses (polio, hepatits C), replication of negative strand RNA viruses (influenza virus). DNA tumor viruses and their replication. Retroviruses: replication, gene expression. HIV: gene structure and functions. Viral genetics-reverse genetics. Viruses and vectors for foreign gene expression-gene therapy. Prions. Action of antivirals-interferon, antisense RNA, ribozymes, peptide inhibitors etc. Immunization against viral diseases. Recombinant vaccines – DNA vaccine, edible vaccine, epitope delivery systems, vaccine design.

M. S. Shaila and Saumitra Das

Knipe, D.M., and Howley, M. (Eds), Fundamental Virology, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Fourth Edn. 2001.

MC 205 (AUG) 2:0
Host-Pathogen interactions and immune evasion mechanisms

This course will utilize multiple host-pathogen pairs as models to demonstrate the innumerable mechanisms utilized by pathogens of viral, bacterial and parasitic origin to subvert the host and enhance their own survival. Secretion systems of bacteria: Type I, II, III, IV, V. Overview of ABC exporters and importers, plant pathogen interactions, virulence gene expression, intracellular pathogenesis. Signaling by the bacterial components. Innate and adaptive immunity to bacterial pathogens. Quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and its role in pathogenesis. Viral immune evasion mechanisms such as functional mimicry of host complement proteins, secretion of chemokine and cytokine-like molecules, inhibition of NF-қB and apoptosis, inhibition of serine proteases of the host antigen presenting cells to suppress antigen presentation, inhibition of MHC class I presentation of viral antigens, inhibition of host secretory pathway, prevention of phagosome acidification, antigenic variation and suppression of TH1 responses by protozoan pathogens, role of host TRIM5 family proteins in controlling HIV by mutation of viral RNA, ds-RNA and non-capped 5’ end mediated recognition of pathogens by the host, are some of the topics that will be covered.

S. Vijaya and Dipshika Chakravortty

David G. Russell and Siamon Gordon, Phagocyte-Pathogen Interactions: Macrophages and the Host Response to Infection. ASM Press. 2009.

MC 206 (AUG) 2:0
RNA Biology

A basic course on the biology of RNA with primary emphasis on eukaryotic systems. Concept of RNA world, chemical aspects of RNAses and their specificities. Types of RNA, transcription mechanisms, coupled transcription and post transcriptional processing, splicing and polyadenylation, post-transcriptional control mechanisms and mRNA stability, RNA structure and prediction, evolution of RNA sequences, RNA editing, ribozymes, RNA binding proteins, ribonucleoprotein – complexes and functions, RNA-protein recognition and interactions. Techniques in RNA research. Non-coding RNAs: structure and function. RNA interference: siRNA and miRNAs, role of RNA in protein biosynthesis, translational control of gene expression. RNA viruses: regulation of gene expression. RNA in pathogenesis: its potential use as a drug and as a drug target. There will be guest lectures by the experts in the field and assignments covering advances in the area of RNA Biology.

Saumitra Das and C. Durga Rao

Gestland R. F, Cech, T. R, & Atkins J. F., "The RNA World". Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York. 3rd Edn. 2006.

MC 207/DB 211 (AUG) 3:0
Molecular Biology

DNA structure, gene structure and organization, topological interconversions. DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Chromatin structure and function, transcription, translation and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. RNA splicing. DNA-Protein and RNA-protein interactions, catalytic RNAs; RNA interference, editing and processing, DNA repair and recombination. DNA methylation and its significance.

P. Sadhale, V. Nagaraja, and Umesh Varshney

Lewin's Genes X by Jocelyn E. Krebs, Elliott S. Goldstein, and Stephen T. Kilpatrick. Amazon. com.

MC 208/DB 215 (AUG) 3:0
Principles of Genetic Engineering

Growth and maintenance of bacteriophages and bacterial strains containing plasmids. Enzymes used in genetic engineering, Vectors used in molecular cloning and expression of genes. DNA, RNA, and protein isolation, purification, and fractionation methods. Radioactive and nonradioactive labelling of nucleic acids and proteins, Transformation and transfection procedures, Genomic DNA and cDNA cloning, In vitro packaging systems and construction of genomic and cDNA libraries, Detection and characterisation methods for genes and chromosomes. Nucleic acid sequence determination, Methods for protein analysis and protein-nucleic acid interactions. Site-specific mutagenesis, Polymerase chain reaction and its applications, Antisense technology and RNA silencing techniques, DNA, and protein microarrays.

P. Ajitkumar

Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual. 3rd Edn. Vol. I, II, & III. J. Sambrook and D. W. Russell. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Recombinant DNA Principles and Methodologies. J. J. Greene and V. B. Rao. CRC Press.
Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics. 7th Edn. S. B. Primrose and R. M. Twyman. Blackwell Publishing.

MC 209 (JAN) 2:0
Biological Electron Microscopy

Microscopy, different types of light microscopes, resolution, various types of electron microscopes, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope, basic principle and design of electron microscope, image formation, image recording and interpretation. Processing of biological tissue for microscopy: fixation, embedding, ultramicrotomy and staining. Cryo-electron microscopy, immuno electron microscopy, negative stain technique, optical diffraction and image processing. Shadow casting and replica techniques, EM studies of DNA, binding of proteins and nucleic acids, scanning tunnelling microscope and high voltage electron microscope and their use in biology.

S. S. Indi

Biological electron microscopy by Michael Dykstra and Laura E Reuss.
Electron Microscopy by John J Bozzola and Lonnie Dee Russell.

MC 210 (JAN) 2:0
Molecular Oncology

Immortalization, transformation, metastasis; genetic instability, mutation, deletion, insertion, aneuploidy, chromo-some translocation and gene amplification. Cell cycle and cancer, cell cycle checkpoints – G1 and S checkpoint, G2 and M checkpoint, cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases, CDK inhibitors – p16, p21 and p27. Oncogenes, growth factors, growth factor receptors, G protein/signal transduction, tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases and transcription factors. Tumor suppressor genes: p53, RB, BRCA1, BRCA2, APC and WT1. Mismatch repair, telomerase, DNA methylation, protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and degradation events. Tranformation by RNA and DNA tumor viruses (adenovirus, simian virus 40 and human papilloma virus). Oncogene-tumor suppressor interactions, apoptosis and cancer. Cancer gene therapy.

Kumaravel Somasundaram and Annapoorni Rangarajan

The Biology of Cancer by Robert A Weinberg. Garland Science Publishing, New York.