Research overview-

Mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are extremely successful pathogens with the former afflicting more than one-third of the human population. Upon infection with M. tuberculosis, only about 10% of the infected populace goes on to develop active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The rest exhibit a clinically latent infection characterized by the persistence of, possibly, dormant bacilli. Approximately 10% of latently infected individuals progress to a highly contagious disease state, called reactivation TB. The reactivation risk is higher when confounded by immune-suppression, for example, upon co-infection with HIV/AIDS. The host-pathogen interplay is complex. Our research interest lies in studying the immunological parameters associated with host- Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactions during pulmonary-, latent- and reactivation TB. We are also investigating the signaling pathways and immunological responses orchestrated by various pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) viz Dectin-1. Mycobacteria-responsive epigenetic regulation of immune responses is another area of our interest.

Group Member 

Ashish Bijewar

PhD Student

Year of Joining IISc: 2017
Masters: M.Sc. (Biotechnology),
Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra
email ID:


PhD Student

Year of Joining IISc: 2018
Masters: M.Sc. (Life Sciences),
School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi
email ID:

Ankita Ghoshal

PhD Student

Year of Joining IISc: 2018
Masters: M.Sc. (Microbiology), Banaras Hindu University, UP
email ID:

Awantika Shah

Int. PhD Student

Year of joining IISc: 2018
Bachelors: B.Sc. (Biotechnology),
Fergusson College, Pune University, Maharashtra
email ID:

Aditi Singh

PhD Student

Year of Joining IISc: 2020
Bachelors: (Bio-Technology), Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Uttar Pradesh
email ID:

Smriti Sundar

PhD Student

Year of Joining IISc: 2021
Masters: M.Sc (Biotechnology), IIT Roorkee, Uttarakhand
email ID:

Babita Kumari

Int. PhD Student

Year of joining IISc: 2020
Bachelors: B.Sc. Hons.(Microbiology),
Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women
email ID:

Shashaank G

PhD Student

Year of Joining IISc: 2022
Masters: BS-MS (Biological Sciences), IISER Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
email ID:

Nidhi Srinivasan

Project assistant

Year of Joining IISc: 2022
Masters: M.Sc (Genetics), University of Mysore, Karnataka
email ID:

K. Benasir

Lab Manager

Year of joining IISc: 2017
Bachelor’s: B.Sc (Computer Science)
email ID:


  1. Dr. Yeddula Narayana
  2. Dr. Kanhu C. Mishra
  3. Dr. Rashmi Chaturvedi
  4. Dr. Kushagra Bansal
  5. Dr. Nisha Kapoor
  6. Dr. Akhauri Yash Sinha
  7. Dr. DevramSampatGhorpade
  8. Dr. JammaTrinath
  9. Dr. Sahana Holla
  10. Dr. M. Ravinder Naick
  11. Dr. Vikas Singh
  12. Dr. MonoranjanBoro
  13. Dr. Praveen Prakhar
  14. Dr. Kasturi Mahadik
  15. Dr. Tanushree Mukherjee
  16. Dr. Bharat Bhatt
  17. Dr. Preeti Yadav
  18. Tanisha Malpani (UG student)
  19. Dr. Salik Miskat Borbora
  20. Dr. Gaurav Kumar Lohia 


Project assistants

  • Anupama Karnam
  • Vibha A.V. Uduppa
  • Sneha Bhatt
  • Sravani Mareddy



  • Sir C. V. Raman Young Scientist State Award for the year 2008 instituted by the Government of Karnataka
  • National Bioscience Award for Career Development for the year 2009 from Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.
  • Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (SSB) Prize for the year 2011 in Medical Sciences from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India.
  • J.C. Bose National Fellow (2016-2020)
  • J.C. Bose National Fellow (2021-current)
  • Fellow, The National Academy of Sciences (NASI), India
  • Fellow, The Indian Academy of Sciences (IAS), India
  • Fellow, Indian National Science Academy (INSA), India
  • Dr. Raja Ramanna State Award for the year 2020 instituted by the Government of Karnataka


Research Articles 

  • Borbora SM, Rajmani RS, Balaji KN. (2022) PRMT5 epigenetically regulates the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH to influence lipid accumulation during mycobacterial infection PLoS Pathog. June 2022

  • Bhatt, B., Prakhar, P., Lohia, G.K., Rajmani R.S., Balaji, K. N. Pre-existing mycobacterial infection modulates Candida albicans-driven pyroptosis. FEBS J. 2021 289(6):1536-1551

  • Mukherjee, T., Bhatt, B., Prakhar, P., Lohia, G.K., Rajmani R.S., Balaji, K. N. Epigenetic reader BRD4 supports mycobacterial pathogenesis by co-modulating host lipophagy and angiogenesis. Autophagy, 2021

  • Yadav, P., Bhatt, B., Balaji, K. N. Selective activation of MST1/2 kinases by retinoid agonist Adapalene abrogates AURKA-regulated septic arthritis. J Immunol, 2021,

  • Kumari R, Roy U, Desai S, Nilavar NM, Van Nieuwenhuijze A, Paranjape A, Radha G, Bawa P, Srivastava M, Nambiar M, Balaji KN, Liston A, Choudhary B, Raghavan SC. MicroRNA miR-29c regulates RAG1 expression and modulates V(D)J recombination during B cell development. Cell Rep. 2021 Jul 13;36(2):109390.

  • Ravichandran S, Banerjee U, Dr GD, Kandukuru R, Thakur C, Chakravortty D, Balaji KN, Singh A, Chandra N. VB 10, a new blood biomarker for differential diagnosis and recovery monitoring of acute viral and bacterial infections. 2021 Apr 24;67:103352.

  • Khandelwal N, Shaikh M, Mhetre A, Singh S, Sajeevan T, Joshi A, Balaji KN, Chakrapani H, Kamat SS. Fatty acid chain length drives lysophosphatidylserine-dependent immunological outputs. Cell Chem Biol. 2021 Jan 21:S2451-9456(21)00008-8.

  • Garg R, Borbora SM, Bansia H, Rao S, Singh P, Verma R, Balaji KN, Nagaraja V. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Calcium Pump CtpF Modulates the Autophagosome in an mTOR-Dependent Manner. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020 Sep 16;10:461.

  • Das M, Karnam A, Stephen-Victor E, Gilardin L, Bhatt B, Kumar Sharma V, Rambabu N, Patil V, Lecerf M, Käsermann F, Bruneval P, Balaji KN, Benveniste O, Kaveri SV, Bayry J., Intravenous Immunoglobulin Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Inducing Autophagy. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Jan 23;11(1):50

  • Kakade, P., Mahadik, K., Balaji, K. N., Sanyal, K., Nagaraja, V. Two negative regulators of biofilm development exhibit functional divergence in conferring virulence potential to Candida albicans. FEMS Yeast Res, 2019, 19(2)

  • Dua, B., Upadhyay, R., Natrajan, M., Arora, M., Balaji, K. N., Joshi, B. Notch signaling induces lymphoproliferation, T helper cell activation and Th1/Th2 differentiation in leprosy. Immunol Lett,2019, 207:6-16.

  • Upadhyay, R., Dua, B., Sharma, B., Natrajan, M., Jain, A. K., Balaji, K. N., Joshi, B.Transcription factors STAT-4, STAT-6 and CREB regulate Th1/Th2 response in leprosy patients: effect of M. leprae antigens. BMC Infect Dis, 2019, 19(1):52

  • Mukherjee, T., Udupa, V. A. V., Prakhar, P., Chandra, K., Chakravortty, D., Balaji, K. N. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-responsive indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase confers immune homeostasis during S. flexneri infection. J Infect Dis, 2019, 219 (11): 1841-1851

  • Mahadik, K., Yadav, P., Bhatt, B., Shah, R. A., Balaji, K. N. Deregulated AUF1 Assists BMP- EZH2-Mediated Delayed Wound Healing during Candida albicans Infection, J Immunol, 2018, 201(12):3617-3629

  • Mahadik, K., Prakhar, P., Rajmani, R.S., Singh, A., and Balaji, K. N. c-Abl-TWIST1 epigenetically dysregulate inflammatory responses during mycobacterial infection by co-regulating Bone Morphogenesis Protein and miR27a,Front Immunol, 2018, 9:85

  • Stephen-Victor, E., Karnam A., Fontaine, T., Beauvais, A., Das, M., Hegde, P., Prakhar, P., Holla, S., Balaji, K. N., Kaveri, S. V., Latgé, J. P., Aimanianda, V., and Bayry, J. Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall α-(1,3)-glucan stimulates regulatory T cell polarization by inducing PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells,J Infect Dis, 2017, 216 (10): 1281-1294

  • Singh, V., Prakhar, P., Rajmani, R. S., Mahadik, K., Borbora, S. M., and Balaji, K. N. Histone Methyltransferase SET8 epigenetically reprograms host immune responses to assist mycobacterial survival, J Infect Dis, 2017, 216, 477-488.

  • Boro, M. and Balaji, K. N.CXCL1 and CXCL2 regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation via G-Protein-Coupled Receptor CXCR2. J Immunol, 2017, 199, 1660-1671.

  • Boro, M., Singh, V., and Balaji, K. N. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-triggered Hippo pathway orchestrates CXCL1/2 expression to modulate host immune responses, Sci Rep. 2016, 6, 37695.

  • Holla, S., Prakhar, P., Singh, V., Karnam, A., Mukherjee, T., Mahadik, K., Parikh, P., Singh, A., Rajmani, R. S., Ramachandra, S. G., and Balaji, K. N. MUSASHI-Mediated Expression of JMJD3, a H3K27me3 Demethylase, Is Involved in Foamy Macrophage Generation during Mycobacterial Infection. PLoSPathog. 2016, 12, e1005814.

  • Holla, S., Stephen-Victor, E., Prakhar, P., Sharma, M., Saha, C., Udupa, V., Kaveri, S. V., Bayry, J., and Balaji, K. N. Mycobacteria-responsive sonic hedgehog signaling mediates programmed death-ligand 1- and prostaglandin E2-induced regulatory T cell expansion, Sci Rep. 2016, 6, 24193.

  • Karnam, A., Holla, S., and Balaji, K. N. Sonic hedgehog-responsive lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 modulate Dectin-1-induced inflammatory cytokines, Mol Immunol. 2015, 68, 280-289.

  • Prakhar, P., Holla, S., Ghorpade, D. S., Gilleron, M., Puzo, G., Udupa, V., and Balaji, K. N. Ac2PIM-responsive miR-150 and miR-143 target receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 to suppress NOD2-induced immunomodulators, J Biol Chem. 2015, 290, 26576-26586.

  • Singh, V., Holla, S., Ramachandra, S. G., and Balaji, K. N. WNT-inflammasome signaling mediates NOD2-induced development of acute arthritis in mice, J Immunol. 2015, 194, 3351-3360.

  • Maddur, M. S., Trinath, J., Rabin, M., Bolgert, F., Guy, M., Vallat, J. M., Magy, L., Balaji, K. N., Kaveri, S. V., and Bayry, J. Intravenous immunoglobulin-mediated expansion of regulatory T cells in autoimmune patients is associated with increased prostaglandin E2 levels in the circulation, Cell Mol Immunol. 2015, 12, 650-652.

  • Prasad, K. D., Trinath, J., Biswas, A., Sekar, K., Balaji, K. N., and Guru Row, T. N. Anthrapyrazolone analogues intercept inflammatory JNK signals to moderate endotoxin induced septic shock, Sci Rep. 2014, 4, 7214.

  • Stephen-Victor, E., Saha, C., Sharma, M., Holla, S., Balaji, K. N., Kaveri, S. V., and Bayry, J. Inhibition of programmed death 1 ligand 1 on dendritic cells enhances Mycobacterium-mediated interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production without modulating the frequencies of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells, J Infect Dis. 2014, 211, 1027-1029.

  • Trinath, J., Holla, S., Mahadik, K., Prakhar, P., Singh, V., and Balaji, K. N. The WNT signaling pathway contributes to dectin-1-dependent inhibition of Toll-like receptor-induced inflammatory signature, Mol Cell Biol. 2014, 34, 4301-4314.

  • Holla, S., Ghorpade, D. S., Singh, V., Bansal, K., and Balaji, K. N. Mycobacterium bovis BCG promotes tumor cell survival from tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis, Mol Cancer. 2014, 13, 210.

  • Prasad, K. D., Trinath, J., Biswas, A., Sekar, K., Balaji, K. N., and Guru Row, T. N. Alkyl chain substituted 1,9-pyrazoloanthrones exhibit prominent inhibitory effect on c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Org Biomol Chem. 2014, 12, 4656-4662.

  • Holla, S., Sharma, M., Vani, J., Kaveri, S. V., Balaji, K. N., and Bayry, J. GM-CSF along with IL-4 but not alone is indispensable for the differentiation of human dendritic cells from monocytes, J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014, 133, 1500-1502, 1502 e1501.

  • Holla, S., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Bayry, J., and Balaji, K. N. Selective inhibition of IFNG-induced autophagy by Mir155- and Mir31-responsive WNT5A and SHH signaling, Autophagy. 2014, 10, 311-330.

  • Ghorpade, D. S., Sinha, A. Y., Holla, S., Singh, V., and Balaji, K. N. NOD2-nitric oxide-responsive microRNA-146a activates Sonic hedgehog signaling to orchestrate inflammatory responses in murine model of inflammatory bowel disease, J Biol Chem. 2013, 288, 33037-33048.

  • Trinath, J., Hegde, P., Sharma, M., Maddur, M. S., Rabin, M., Vallat, J. M., Magy, L., Balaji, K. N., Kaveri, S. V., and Bayry, J. Intravenous immunoglobulin expands regulatory T cells via induction of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 in human dendritic cells, Blood. 2013, 122, 1419-1427.

  • Vani, J., Shaila, M. S., Trinath, J., Balaji, K. N., Kaveri, S. V., and Bayry, J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall-associated Rv3812 protein induces strong dendritic cell-mediated interferon gamma responses and exhibits vaccine potential, J Infect Dis. 2013, 208, 1034-1036.

  • Ghorpade, D. S., Holla, S., Sinha, A. Y., Alagesan, S. K., and Balaji, K. N. Nitric oxide and KLF4 protein epigenetically modify class II transactivator to repress major histocompatibility complex II expression during Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin infection, J Biol Chem. 2013, 288, 20592-20606.

  • Alvarez-Corrales, N., Ahmed, R. K., Rodriguez, C. A., Balaji, K. N., Rivera, R., Sompallae, R., Vudattu, N. K., Hoffner, S. E., Zumla, A., Pineda-Garcia, L., and Maeurer, M. Differential cellular recognition pattern to M. tuberculosis targets defined by IFN-gamma and IL-17 production in blood from TB + patients from Honduras as compared to health care workers: TB and immune responses in patients from Honduras, BMC Infect Dis. 2013, 13, 125.

  • Trinath, J., Hegde, P., Balaji, K. N., Kaveri, S. V., and Bayry, J. Intravenous immunoglobulin-mediated regulation of Notch ligands on human dendriticcells, J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013, 131, 1255-1257, 1257 e1251.

  • Verma-Kumar, S., Abraham, D., Dendukuri, N., Cheeran, J. V., Sukumar, R., and Balaji, K. N. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: a latent class analysis, PLoS One. 2012, 7, e49548.

  • Ghorpade, D. S., Holla, S., Kaveri, S. V., Bayry, J., Patil, S. A., and Balaji, K. N. Sonic hedgehog-dependent induction of microRNA 31 and microRNA 150 regulates Mycobacterium bovis BCG-driven toll-like receptor 2 signaling, Mol Cell Biol. 2013, 33, 543-556.

  • Ghorpade, D. S., Leyland, R., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Patil, S. A., and Balaji, K. N. MicroRNA-155 is required for Mycobacterium bovis BCG-mediated apoptosis of macrophages, Mol Cell Biol. 2012, 32, 2239-2253.

  • Ahmed, R. K., Rohava, Z., Balaji, K. N., Hoffner, S. E., Gaines, H., Magalhaes, I., Zumla, A., Skrahina, A., and Maeurer, M. J. Pattern recognition and cellular immune responses to novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis-antigens in individuals from Belarus, BMC Infect Dis. 2012, 12, 41.

  • Trinath, J., Maddur, M. S., Kaveri, S. V., Balaji, K. N., and Bayry, J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes regulatory T-cell expansion via induction of programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, CD274) on dendritic cells, J Infect Dis. 2012, 205, 694-696.

  • A, S. K., Bansal, K., Holla, S., Verma-Kumar, S., Sharma, P., and Balaji, K. N. ESAT-6 induced COX-2 expression involves coordinated interplay between PI3K and MAPK signaling, Mol Immunol. 2012, 49, 655-663.

  • Balaji, K. N., Kaveri, S. V., and Bayry, J. Wnt signaling and Dupuytren’s disease, N Engl J Med. 2011, 365, 1740; author reply 1740.

  • Roy, S., Narayana, Y., Balaji, K. N., and Ajitkumar, P. Highly fluorescent GFPm 2+ -based genome integration-proficient promoter probe vector to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis promoters in infected macrophages, MicrobBiotechnol. 2012, 5, 98-105.

  • Bansal, K., and Balaji, K. N. Intracellular pathogen sensor NOD2 programs macrophages to trigger Notch1 activation, J Biol Chem. 2011, 286, 5823-5835.

  • Das, P., Lahiri, A., Sen, M., Iyer, N., Kapoor, N., Balaji, K. N., and Chakravortty, D. Cationic amino acid transporters and Salmonella Typhimurium ArgT collectively regulate arginine availability towards intracellular Salmonella growth, PLoS One. 2010, 5, e15466.

  • Bansal, K., Sinha, A. Y., Ghorpade, D. S., Togarsimalemath, S. K., Patil, S. A., Kaveri, S. V., Balaji, K. N., and Bayry, J. Src homology 3-interacting domain of Rv1917c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces selective maturation of human dendritic cells by regulating PI3K-MAPK-NF-kappaB signaling and drives Th2 immune responses, J Biol Chem. 2010, 285, 36511-36522.

  • Chaturvedi, R., Bansal, K., Narayana, Y., Kapoor, N., Sukumar, N., Togarsimalemath, S. K., Chandra, N., Mishra, S., Ajitkumar, P., Joshi, B., Katoch, V. M., Patil, S. A., and Balaji, K. N. The multifunctional PE_PGRS11 protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays a role in regulating resistance to oxidative stress, J Biol Chem, 2010. 285, 30389-30403.

  • Bansal, K., Elluru, S. R., Narayana, Y., Chaturvedi, R., Patil, S. A., Kaveri, S. V., Bayry, J., and Balaji, K. N.(2010) PE_PGRS antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induce maturation and activation of human dendritic cells, J Immunol. 2010 184, 3495-3504.

  • Kapoor, N., Narayana, Y., Patil, S. A., and Balaji, K. N. Nitric oxide is involved in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin-activated Jagged1 and Notch1 signaling, J Immunol. 2010, 184, 3117-3126.

  • Narayana, Y., Bansal, K., Sinha, A. Y., Kapoor, N., Puzo, G., Gilleron, M., and Balaji, K. N. SOCS3 expression induced by PIM2 requires PKC and PI3K signaling, Mol Immunol. 2009, 46, 2947-2954.

  • Bansal, K., Kapoor, N., Narayana, Y., Puzo, G., Gilleron, M., and Balaji, K. N. PIM2 Induced COX-2 and MMP-9 expression in macrophages requires PI3K and Notch1 signaling, PLoS One. 2009, 4, e4911.

  • Bansal, K., Narayana, Y., Patil, S. A., and Balaji, K. N. bovis BCG induced expression of COX-2 involves nitric oxide-dependent and -independent signaling pathways, J Leukoc Biol. 2009, 85, 804-816.

  • Bansal, K., Narayana, Y., and Balaji, K. N. Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by Mycobacterium bovis BCG in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, Scand J Immunol. 2009, 69, 11-19.

  • Srinivas, M., Rajakumari, S., Narayana, Y., Joshi, B., Katoch, V. M., Rajasekharan, R., and Balaji, K. N.Functional characterization of the phospholipase C activity of Rv3487c and its localization on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J Biosci. 2008, 33, 221-230.

  • Narayana, Y., and Balaji, K. N. NOTCH1 up-regulation and signaling involved in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced SOCS3 expression in macrophages, J Biol Chem. 2008, 283, 12501-12511.

  • Mishra, K. C., de Chastellier, C., Narayana, Y., Bifani, P., Brown, A. K., Besra, G. S., Katoch, V. M., Joshi, B., Balaji, K. N., and Kremer, L. Functional role of the PE domain and immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis triacylglycerol hydrolase LipY, Infect Immun. 2008, 76, 127-140.

  • Narayana, Y., Joshi, B., Katoch, V. M., Mishra, K. C., and Balaji, K. N. Differential B-cell responses are induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE antigens Rv1169c, Rv0978c, and Rv1818c, Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007, 14, 1334-1341.

  • Balaji, K. N., Goyal, G., Narayana, Y., Srinivas, M., Chaturvedi, R., and Mohammad, S. Apoptosis triggered by Rv1818c, a PE family gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by mitochondrial intermediates in T cells, Microbes Infect. 2007, 9, 271-281.

  • Balaji, K. N., Schaschke, N., Machleidt, W., Catalfamo, M., and Henkart, P. A. Surface cathepsin B protects cytotoxic lymphocytes from self-destruction after degranulation, J Exp Med. 2002, 196, 493-503.

  • Bhandoola, A., Balaji, K.N., Granger, L., and Singer, A. Programming for cytotoxic effector function occurs concomitantly with CD4 extinction during CD8(+) T cell differentiation in the thymus, Int Immunol. 2000, 12, 1035-1040.

  • Rojas, R. E., Balaji, K. N., Subramanian, A., and Boom, W. H. Regulation of human CD4(+) alphabeta T-cell-receptor-positive (TCR(+)) and gammadelta TCR(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor beta, Infect Immun. 1999, 67, 6461-6472.

  • Balaji, K. N., and Boom, W. H. Processing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli by human monocytes for CD4+ alphabeta and gammadelta T cells: role of particulate antigen, Infect Immun. 1998, 66, 98-106.

  • Tan, J. S., Canaday, D. H., Boom, W. H., Balaji, K. N., Schwander, S. K., and Rich, E. A. Human alveolar T lymphocyte responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens: role for CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and relative resistance of alveolar macrophages to lysis, J Immunol. 1997, 159, 290-297.

  • Balaji, K. N., and Nayak, R. Effect of 5-fluorouracil on interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 receptor expression, Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997, 42, 419-424.

  • Balaji, K. N., Schwander, S. K., Rich, E. A., and Boom, W. H. Alveolar macrophages as accessory cells for human gamma delta T cells activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J Immunol. 1995. 154, 5959-5968.

  • Tsukaguchi, K., Balaji, K. N., and Boom, W. H. CD4+ alpha beta T cell and gamma delta T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Similarities and differences in Ag recognition, cytotoxic effector function, and cytokine production, J Immunol. 1995, 154, 1786-1796.

  • Boom, W. H., Balaji, K. N., Nayak, R., Tsukaguchi, K., and Chervenak, K. A. Characterization of a 10- to 14-kilodalton protease-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra antigen that stimulates human gamma delta T cells, Infect Immun. 1994, 62, 5511-5518.

  • Balaji, K. N., and Nayak, R. Effect of 5-fluorouracil on interleukin-2 expression, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992, 187, 305-309 

Scientific Reviews

  • Mukherjee, T.and Balaji, K. N. The WNT framework in shaping immune cell response during bacterial infections, Front Immunol. 2019

  • Mukherjee, T. and Balaji, K. N. Immunological implications of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling in persistent infections, IUBMB Life. 2019,doi: 10.1002/iub.2115

  • Klionsky, D. J. … Balaji, K. N. … Zughaier, S. M. M. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edn), Autophagy. 2016, 12, 1222.

  • Holla, S., and Balaji, K. N. Epigenetics and miRNA during bacteria-induced host immune responses, Epigenomics. 2016, 7, 1197-1212.

  • Kaufmann, S. H., Lange, C., Rao, M., Balaji, K. N., Lotze, M., Schito, M., Zumla, A. I., and Maeurer, M. Progress in tuberculosis vaccine development and host-directed therapies-a state of the art review, Lancet Respir Med. 2014, 2, 301-320.

  • Mukhopadhyay, S., and Balaji, K. N. The PE and PPE proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2011, 91, 441-447.

  • Maddur, M. S., Vani, J., Dimitrov, J. D., Balaji, K. N., Lacroix-Desmazes, S., Kaveri, S. V., and Bayry, J. Dendritic Cells in Autoimmune Diseases, The Open Arthritis Journal. 2009, 2, 22-28.

Number of books authored/edited: 1 book chapter

  • Holla, S., Trinath, J., and Balaji, K. N. TNF-alpha modulates TLR2-dependent responses during mycobacterial infection, Methods Mol Biol. 2014, 1155, 133-150.

K. N. Balaji